The research arm of Nethermind

Creating synergies between the fields of cryptography, decentralized finance (DeFi), and protocol research.
Research Solutions

Our research

TRUSTED BY forward thinking teams
about us

Our research solutions serve as the nexus where our theoretical knowledge meets real-world applications.

What we do

Cryptography Research

Explore innovative cryptography driving privacy and trust in blockchain through our research into zero-knowledge proofs, secure computation, and novel protocols. Our multidisciplinary team tackles complex cryptographic challenges to enable robust decentralized systems.

DeFi Research

Leveraging extensive knowledge in decentralized finance and blockchain technology, we offer strong analytical capabilities to our partners. Our services include valuable technical insights, risk analysis frameworks, and strategic tools to empower investors, traders, and protocols navigating the complexities of this rapidly evolving landscape.

Protocol Research

Combining deep theoretical knowledge with practical blockchain experience across the full technology stack, our team specializes in designing robust consensus mechanisms, incentive models, and decentralized architectures that power next-generation protocols. Through cross-disciplinary collaboration, we tackle complex challenges like MEV, Layer 2 scaling solutions, shared sequencers, and decentralized exchange protocols.

Research Solutions

Partnering with industry leaders, our Research Solutions team elevates blockchain applications through tailored research. We enhance protocols with cutting-edge cryptography, optimized consensus designs, and innovative decentralized architectures spanning identity, validator technology, and privacy-preserving techniques.

Our multidisciplinary approach facilitates blockchain innovation, supporting partners with robust research and tailored solutions.

Our research

cryptography research

On Soundness Notions for Interactive Oracle Proofs

In this work, we establish new results on the relationship between various notions of soundness for IOPs.

March 1, 2024

cryptography research

Fiat-Shamir Security of FRI and Related SNARKs

We establish new results on the Fiat-Shamir (FS) security of several protocols that are widely used in practice, and we provide general tools for establishing similar results for others.

February 15, 2024

cryptography research

STARKPack: Aggregating STARKs for shorter proofs and faster verification

In this post, we research the problem of amortizing costs when one must produce many proofs simultaneously. The method, which we call “packing,” applies to FRI-based SNARKs (e.g., ethSTARK, Plonky2, RISC0, Boojum, etc.).

January 31, 2024

cryptography research

COMMON: Order Book with Privacy

This paper introduces a novel DEX design, termed COMMON, that addresses these two predominant challenges. COMMON operates as an order book, natively integrated with a shielded token pool, thus providing anonymity to its users.

December 6, 2023

cryptography research

Fiat-Shamir security of FRI and related SNARKs — Part 1

In the Nethermind Cryptography Research team, we have recently delved into analyzing the security of some SNARKs that are built on top of the FRI protocol. This emerging trend has seen numerous prominent projects utilizing some variation of the ethSTARK protocol or of Plonk compiled with FRI.

August 14, 2023

Protocol research

Value-Capturing Based Rollups with Based Preconfirmations

his document outlines a protocol which allows for based preconfirmations, while ensuring the based rollup captures much of the value generated from block building.

January 12, 2024

Protocol research

Alternate PBS: A PBS Proposal for Based Rollupts

This article introduces Alternate PBS, a new PBS proposal for based rollups 17. Alternate PBS allows MEV income generated on the based rollup to be captured by the rollup itself, as opposed to being captured through priority payments to the proposer of the sequencing chain.

November 1, 2023

Protocol Research

Exploring Incentives in Blockchain Protocols

In this blog post, we will discuss what we consider “incentives’’ in (blockchain) protocols and more.

November 22, 2022

Protocol research

Systematization of Knowledge for Decentralized Identities and Verifiable Credentials

In this systematization of knowledge, we examine the current innovations and approaches to the field of decentralized identity (also self-sovereign identity), as well as its relevant foundations.

Research in progress

Research solutions

Threshold Signature Schemes

This post reviews two popular digital signature schemes, along with their Threshold Signature Scheme (TSS) versions.

October 17, 2022

Research solutions

A Path To Permissionless Liquid Staking

Although staking is used in multiple proof-of-stake networks, this article focuses solely on Ethereum. We will briefly discuss other types of staking, but our main area of interest is the various flavors of liquid staking.

September 29, 2022

Research solutions

How to reach consensus with strangers

In this post, we discuss the notion of Byzantine Fault Tolerant (BFT) consensus protocols.

September 29, 2022

Research solutions

A tour of Verifiable Secret Sharing schemes and Distributed Key Generation protocols.

This article introduces Distributed Key Generation (DKG) protocols and one of its fundamental building blocks: Verifiable Secret Sharing (VSS) schemes.

August 25, 2022

Research solutions

Using Shamir’s secret sharing to share mnemonics

In this blogpost, I will explain how to use Shamir's secret sharing to securely share mnemonic keys which are often used to secure cryptocurrency wallets.

March 31, 2022

Latest media

Latest media

April 16, 2024
Security proofs of SNARKs and its applicability

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December 7, 2023
White-labeling resistance for Lido

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October 1, 2023
Exploring Security of ZK Systems

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cryptography research
ZK10: Fiat-Shamir security of FRI and related SNARKs

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